A Study of the First Epistle of Peter (1 Peter)

First Epistle of Peter

Bible Journaling 1 Peter. Credit: Grace Veenker (@graceveenker) on Instagram

Authorship of 1 Peter:

The First Epistle of Peter claims to be written by the apostle Peter to a group of churches in Asia Minor. Some scholars believe that the letter was written, as claimed, by Simon, one of Jesus’ first four disciples, whose nickname, given by Jesus, was Peter. Others, including this author, believe that the letter was written after Peter’s death, in the sixties of the common era, by another Christian writing in Peter’s name and trying to apply the principles of apostolic faith to a new generation. (Aymer, p 667)

1 Peter 1:1-12: The Foundation of Christian Hope – God’s great blessings to his people:

Peter addresses Christians located throughout the region of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia (I Pet. 1:1). In the greeting section Peter describes the work of the Trinity.

Peter referred to Christians as the “pilgrims of the Dispersion” (1 Peter 1:1, NKJV). It is translated as strangers or exiles in various versions. It means a “resident alien.” The term was originally used to refer to Jews in the Old Testament that were captives in foreign lands. (1)

The information in the address goes far beyond the simple listing of the churches to which the letter is sent. Those who are to receive the letter are called “Exiles of the Dispersion.” This reference to the exile compares the churches to the people of Israel and Judah who were exiled from their homelands in the eighth and sixth centuries BCE. As they are cut off from their homeland, so the Christians who receive this letter are cut off from their homeland too. (Aymer, p 668)

THE WORD TRANSLATED “PILGRIM” IS INTERESTING…

  1. Transliterated from Greek, it is parepidemos {par-ep-id’-ay-mos}, which is a combination of three words:

a. para – alongside of
b. epi – upon
c. demos – used in Biblical Greek of the people of a heathen city (1) (2)

  1. Here, then, is how Thayer defines the word…
    a. one who comes from a foreign country into a city or land to reside there by the side of the natives
    b. a stranger
    c. journeying in a strange place, a foreigner
    d. in the NT metaph. in reference to heaven as the native country, one who sojourns on earth: so, of Christians (1 Peter 1:1) …of the patriarchs (Hebrews 11:13). (1) (3)
  2. Another definition: One who stays in a place as a stranger or visitor; to describe Christians whose final citizenship is in heaven and who are regarded as temporary dwellers on earth. (1) (4) (5)

We will see time and again that 1 Peter distinguishes the Christians from the world around them, which is also the world where they used to live. They are in the world of pagan values and practices, but they are not of that world: they are exiles. (Aymer, p 670)

As Christians today, we are pilgrims of the Dispersion.

Christians are physically here in this world, but it is not their home. Heaven is. We are captives here on earth while our citizenship is in heaven (Philippians 3:20). Our heart ought to be set on going home; yearning for the day when we will be at rest and dwell with our Creator and Savior forever. (1)

1 Peter 1:3-12 describes The method and nature of salvation:

A salvation based on the hope inspired by Christ’s resurrection (1:3-5)

A salvation secured through a faith deepened in trials (1:6-9)

A salvation reported by the prophets who described its grace and glory (1:10-12) (6)

These themes of salvation are a blessing, literally a God-send! They are a precious gift to Christian believers. In 1:8-9 Peter repeats words similar to John 20:29 and the story of His disciple Thomas (doubting Thomas). But unlike Thomas, we believe without seeing. We love Him without seeing Him, but we still trust him and we rejoice with bursting joy. And we are rewarded for trusting that Jesus will be the salvation of our souls.

Our salvation is a gracious gift from God. God chose us out of his love for us. Jesus died to pay the penalty for our sin, and the Holy Spirit cleansed us from sin when we believed. Eternal life is a wonderful gift for those who trust in Christ. (Life Application Study Bible) (7)

1 Peter 1:13-25: The Shape of New Christian Life – A Call to Holy Living (1:13-2:3).

A Demand for Holiness:

A holiness demanded by God’s own character (1:13-16)

A holiness demanded by the costly experience of Christ’s passion (1:17-21)

A holiness expressed in genuine love responding to the gospel (1:22-25)

A holiness expressed by the new life received from a gracious God (2:1-3) (6)

In 1 Peter 1:23 it states, “You have been given a new birth” (NLV) and in 1:3 In his great mercy he has given us [a] new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, (NIV)

Some students of this letter think part of it was originally a sermon for a baptism service. . .. the references to a “new birth into a living hope” fit the theme for baptism, now as much as in the first century. (Aymer, p 669)

In 1:23 Peter asks that we are to Love (brotherly love) each other deeply with all your heart [with a pure heart] (NLT) mirroring the messages found in John 13:34 and Romans 12:10.

In 1:24 Peter quotes from Isaiah 40:6-8:

People are like grass; [Shout that people are like grass]
their beauty is like a flower in the field [Their beauty fades as quickly as the flowers of the field]. The grass withers and the flower fades [beneath the breath of the Lord. And so, it is with people]
But the word of the Lord remains forever. [the word of God stands forever] (NLT)

Peter reminds believers that everything in the life—possessions, accomplishments, people—will eventually fade away and disappear. Only God’s will, word, and work are permanent. (Life Application Study Bible) (7)

Grass and flowers. . . These are common biblical poetic metaphors for the transitory and vulnerable nature of human existence (Psalm 103:15-18; note Matthew 6:30). The word of our God. . . would include not only God’s proclamation to the people [written and spoken], but also His actions and activity in the world. This is a strong affirmation of God’s ultimate lordship over human history. (8)

1 Peter 2:1-10: The Royal Priesthood:

In this section of the letter, the author reminds his readers of the radical newness of their lives in Christ. This is yet another instance of the emphasis on rebirth and regeneration that has led some scholars to believe that at least the first portion of 1 Peter may have been a baptismal homily. (Aymer, p 671)

Being born anew does not mean simple adding a belief in Jesus to ones established patterns of thought and action. Being born anew means giving up a whole host of comfortable habits, including guile, malice, insincerity, envy, and slander; the ways of the world. (Aymer, p 672)

A description of the people of God:

A living spiritual body serving God sacrificially (2:4-5)

A building founded on Christ as the foundation stone (2:6-8)

A chosen group reflecting the excellencies of their deliverer (2:9-10) (6)

Living Stones for God’s House.

In 2:4-8 Peter in describing the church as God’s spiritual temple, Peter drew on several Old Testament texts . . . (Psalm 118:22; Isaiah 8:14; 28:16) . . . Peter’s readers would have understood the living stones to be Israel; then Peter applied the image of “cornerstone to Christ. Once again Peter showed that the church does not cancel the Jewish heritage but fulfills it. (Life Application Study Bible) (7)

For our author as for Paul, the first mark of holiness is belonging in the community of the holy, the community of saints. It is the church in its entirety that is a royal priesthood and a holy people (2:9) (Aymer, p 671)

In 1 Peter 2:10, . . . The author ends this section by recalling one of the most moving narratives of the Old Testament—Hosea’s reconciliation with his wife and with his children (see Hosea 2:23). Hosea gives his children new names when their new lives begin. The author gives the Christian community new names as well: “a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s own people. (Aymer, p 672)

1 Peter 2:11-17: Living Honorable among the Gentiles – The conduct of God’s people in the midst of suffering.

This letter is concerned that Christians be respected as good citizens, good householders, orderly family members. If they are to be immigrants and aliens, at least let the larger community admire them for their exemplary behavior. (Aymer, p 673)

The Christian witness in the world:

Separation from evil and expressions of integrity (2:11-12)

Submission to the governing powers (2:13-17) (6)

. . . though Christians are under government authority, that authority does not take away from their freedom, which is grounded in God. Christians should be good citizens only because they choose freely to do so; they are under no compulsion to obedience save obedience to God. (Aymer, p 673)

There are four injunctions for Christians. . .. The first and last injunctions tell Christians how to get along as members of the community. They urge a kind of prudence: Honor everyone. . . Honor the emperor. . .. The second and third injunctions tell Christians who they are as a new community, a royal priesthood. Love one another instructions regarding how to attend to a fellow the Christian. Fear God, reverence God tells how to attend to the Creator. Notice that these Christians, who face some kind of persecution or slander, are not told either to fear the emperor and his deputies, or to reverence them. (Aymer, p 374)

1 Peter 2:18-3:7: Living Honorable in the Household.

Subjection to masters in imitation of Christ’s example (2:18-25).

Many Christians were household slaves. It would be easy for them to submit to masters who were gentle and kind, but Peter encouraged loyalty and perseverance even in the face of unjust treatment. (Life Application Study Bible) (7)

The Christological passage powerfully provides one reading of Christ’s suffering and death, which are rightly designed by the church’s theology as both essential and mysterious. Not surprisingly, 1 Peter looks at the mystery through the lens of the Old Testament. First Peter 2:22-25 is in many ways a Christ and commentary on the meaning of Isaiah 53. (Aymer, p 675)

While considerable helpful scholarship has suggested some of the differences between slavery in the Roman Empire and slavery in pre-Civil War America, the appropriate consensus among Christians in our time is that slavery is an unacceptable human practice and that the defense of slavery is an unacceptable use of Scripture. It would be simply unethical and unfaithful for people to live in the twenty-first century as Peter enjoined Christians to live in the first. (Aymer, p 676)

In 3:1, the author shifts the focus from slaves to wives, but makes clear by his sentence structure that the obedience of wives is another example his vision of right order for a Christian household. . . Appropriate wifely conduct includes a kind of dress code. . .. We notice that the description of Sarah is a considerably sanitized version of the Sarah we meet in Genesis, where her wifely obedience is considerably more ambiguous (see Kittredge, 618). (Aymer, p 375)

In 1 Peter 3:1, Peter addressed the Christian women of Asia Minor, and he urged them to be submissive to their (mostly) unsaved husbands… He also wanted them to focus on their inner beauty rather than on their outer beauty and live their lives in purity. The purpose of Peter’s instruction was evangelistic. Peter hoped the virtuous behavior and lifestyle of the Christian wives might be persuasive and “win” (a missionary term) the husbands. These men had been unpersuaded by the Word (logos), but Peter suggests they may be won to the Christian faith without a word (logos) from their godly Christian wives. (9)

Sarah did not submit simply because Abraham was her master; she submitted because she wanted to protect her husband. Sarah, however, did not always go along with what Abraham wanted. For instance, Sarah wanted to dismiss Hagar and Ishmael, but this idea distressed Abraham. On this occasion, God said to Abraham (literally): . . . in everything, whatever Sarah says to you, listen to her voice. (Genesis 21:12b, translated from the Septuagint). In Genesis 16:2 it says that Abraham (literally) obeyed Sarah’s voice. Conversely, nowhere in the Genesis narratives of Abraham and Sarah does it state that Sarah “obeyed” her husband. Nevertheless, the submission of Sarah to Abraham was a long-standing element of Jewish traditions.” (9) (10)

Strikingly, in 3:7 husbands are not told to live in mutual obedience or subjection to their wives but to “show [them] consideration . . . as the weaker sex” (NRSV). . . However, there is no license given here for a husband to harm a wife, physically or psychologically. Husbands are enjoined to honor their wives. . .. Many Christians would argue both from a theological and from a humane point of view that the center of Christian practice should be Gal3:28: “[in Christ] there is no longer Jew nor Greek, there is no longer slave nor free, there is no longer male and female” (NRSV). (Aymer, p 675-676)

1 Peter 3:8-22: Faithful Suffering.

Continuation of the message of the Christian witness in the world.

Compassion and forgiveness among all Christians (3:8-12)

Appeals and promises to the persecuted: An appeal for a commitment to meet suffering righteously (3:13-17)

A promise derived from Christ’s exaltation (3:18-22)

Now the exhortations for right Christian conduct move from the household to the church and then to the larger community. . .. new Christians are called to embrace “Unity of spirit, sympathy, love for one another, a tender heart, and a humble mind.” (Aymer, p 676)
In 3:9 the issue of the “conduct of Christians in the larger society and especially Christian interaction with nonbelievers who may abuse them. . .. The proper Christian response to evil is good, and the proper Christian response to abuse is blessing (see also Matt. 6:38-42; Rom. 12:17-18). (Aymer, p 676)

He cites Psalm 34:12-16.

My study Bible gives the example of “praying for the offenders” (7) as a way of paying back wrongs with a blessing.

The author gives reasons for such peaceful behavior. . .. The first is that Christians want to have a good reputation in the larger community. The second reason is that Christians are to live their lives according to the shape of Jesus’ own passion, resurrection, and ascension. (Aymer, p 676-677)

The next verse (19) Aymer states is a puzzling description of what the living Jesus did after his resurrection: “he went and made a proclamation to the spirits in prison. The connection of these spirits with the flood (Genesis 6-9) suggests one of two possibilities. Perhaps these spirits are those disobedient people who perished in the flood. Or perhaps these spirits are the offspring of the “sons of God” and mortal women described in the puzzling passage Gen. 6:1-4).” (Aymer, p 677)

The view of German Protestant theologian Friedrich Spitta on this verse was that . . .

After His death and before His resurrection, Christ preached to fallen angels, also known as “sons of God”, who during Noah’s time had married “daughters of men.

This view is based upon a particular interpretation of Gen 6:1-4 . . .

a. Job 1:6; 2:1 is offered as evidence that angels are sometimes referred to as “sons of God”
b. Jude 6, also, is offered as referring to “fallen angels” in the days of Noah

1) Because it sounds very similar to references in a book called I Enoch
2) Which expounds on the idea that the “sons of God” in Gen 6 were “fallen angels”
3) And Jude seems to quote directly from this book in Jude 14,15

c. Josephus, a Jewish historian born in 37 A.D., took a similar view of Gen 6 3. This view is held by many Protestant scholars. (5)

The older Roman Catholic take on this verse was that in His spirit Christ went to release the souls of the righteous who repented before the flood and had been kept in “limbo.” (5)

In 2007 . . . the [Catholic] Church’s International Theological Commission said limbo reflected an “unduly restrictive view of salvation . . . The Pope at the time was Benedict XVI. He, himself a top theologian who before his election in 2005 expressed doubts about limbo, authorized the publication of the document. (11)

Currently, it appears that Roman Catholic theologians fall into both camps. The verse is said to be unclear and it is not known for sure which of the two possibilities is correct.

I tend to agree with Friedrich Spitta. Although the reasons why are not as scholarly! The fantasy-loving part of me wants them to be a part of the story of this verse and thinks the Nephilim are kind of cool! 😉

The audience of Genesis would have definitely understood these so-called “fallen ones” to be the offspring of celestial beings and human women. Nephilim, . . . which translated means something to the effect of “ancient champions who made a name for themselves. . .. Many theorists believe that Goliath was a descendant of the Nephilim of Genesis 6. (12)

Genesis 6:4, Giants. Hebrew Nephilim. This Hebrew word is found only one other place in the Bible. This is in Num. 13:33 where it is used twice and where the Nephilim are called to the descendants of Anak (see also Num. 13:28; Deut. 9:2; Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:20). “Scholars most often translate this word either as giants, mighty ones, or fallen ones. Scholars disagree as to meaning of the root form of this verb and whether the stem means “those that cause others to fall down” or “fallen ones.” BDB [Brown–Driver–Briggs] confesses that the basic etymology of the word is questionable. At issue, according to The TWOT [Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament], is whether the root of nephilim is nepel meaning “untimely [strange] birth or miscarriage” (resulting in the production of superhuman monstrosities), or the more likely from the root napal, which relates to other Hebrew words meaning “be wonderful, strong or mighty.” This word is of unknown origins and may even mean “heroes” or “fierce warriors.” (13)

Three New Testament passages seem to refer to them [Nephilim]: 1 Peter 3:18-22; 2 Peter 2:4, 5; and Jude 6, 7. These passages say in part: Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit, through whom also he went and preached to the spirits in prison who disobeyed long ago when God waited patiently in the days of Noah while the ark was being built (1 Peter 3:18-20); For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but sent them to hell, putting them into gloomy dungeons to be held for judgment; if he did not spare the ancient world when he brought the flood on its ungodly people, but protected Noah, a preacher of righteousness, and seven others (2 Peter 2:4, 5); and the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their own home-these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day” (Jude 6). (14)

A different Biblical Archaeology Society blog post tells us how the Nephilim have been cast in an undeserved negative light:

It was once claimed that the mating of the sons of god and the daughters of Adam that resulted in the Nephilim caused the flood, and this caused the Nephilim to have a negative reputation. This was believed, because the next verse (Genesis 6:5) is the introduction to the flood narrative and because their name means “fallen ones.” It is unlikely that this interpretation is correct because Genesis 6:4 presents nothing but praise for the Nephilim and no criticism is present. In addition, the name “fallen ones” is likely a reference to their divine paternity transforming—falling—into the human condition, albeit an almost superhuman condition. (15)

None of us, not even the Nephilim, are able to control how we are conceived and how we came to be. So, okay, aren’t the Nephilim kind of cool?

The author now uses the reference to the ark and the flood to remind the readers of their own baptism. The flood prefigures baptism, but of course only in a kind of striking reversal. Noah and his family were actually saved from water; Christians are saved through water. (Aymer, p 677)

1 Peter 4:1-11: Christ’s Suffering as Example, 1 Peter 4:12-19: The Coming Crisis.
Living for God, Suffering for Being a Christian and The shepherding of God’s people in the midst of suffering.

Appeals and promises to the persecuted (continued):

An appeal to live in the will of God, not in the lusts of men (4:1-6)

Some promises and appeals because of Christ’s return (4:7-11)

Some appeals for suffering righteously (4:12-19).

The author continues to reflect on Christ’s suffering as a guide to the current situation of those who hear his letter. Now, however, Christ’s suffering “in the flesh” becomes a paradigm for first-century Christians to understand their new conduct as Christian believers. (Aymer, p 678)

Peter’s statement in 4:6 provides a reason for the utterance in 4:5 that Christ will judge all men. The dead here are those who have died physically. Peter’s word is that the gospel had been preached to and received by some who had since died physically. They have suffered the judgment which comes on all men, physical death (see Rom. 5:12). Since, however, they have received the gospel, they can live spiritually so that after physical death they can enter into life eternal. Some have seen this verse as speaking of the offering of the gospel to some who were in a state of physical death when they heard the gospel. Again, the consistent teaching of the New Testament seems to be that men are held accountable for their response to the truth of God in this life without being offered an additional chance after physical death (see Romans 1:18-25). (6)

Many people in the early church had concerns about life after death. In Thessalonica, Christians worried that loved ones who died before Christ’s return might never see Christ (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18). Peter’s readers needed to be reminded that the dead (both the faithful and their oppressors) would be judged. . .. The judgment will be perfectly fair, he pointed out, because even the dead have heard the Good News (see also 3:18, 19). (Life Application Study Bible) (7)

In the light of Christ’s return Peter makes some practical demands of discipleship in 4:7-11. The coming consummation of Christ’s return becomes an incentive for disciplined, watchful behavior. Peter’s reference here may have been based on his sleeping in the Garden of Gethsemane and on his subsequent compromise (see Mark 14:37-40, 66-72). Although the end is near, Christians are not to abandon the ordinary duties of life but are to maintain discipline. (6)

I personally am drawn to the next few verses (8-11). In verse 8, Peters says, Above all, have fervent and unfailing love for one another, because love covers a multitude of sins [it overlooks unkindness and unselfishly seeks the best for others]. (AMP)

The love that Peter, and Jesus before him, had in mind was the agape that characterizes the love the Father has. It is selfless but also gets something in return, because when it is given, it multiplies to the giver. It is not dependent on feelings. It can be given, whether it is accepted or not. And when one loves another with the love of the Father, it is considered by God as love for the Father. (16)

In verse 9 Peter instructs that we are to Cheerfully share your home with those who need a meal or a place to stay. (NLT)

[This was] . . . In a time when traveling Christians had few roadside locations for lodging, hospitality among Christians was a necessity. Such hospitality was costly both in time and money. . . (6)

This verse reminds me of related verses in the Bible, including Hebrews 13:2.

In 4:10, 11 Peter mentions that Christians are to use their gifts for the benefit of the Christian community. Gifts related to speaking and serving are mentioned in 4:11. The person who speaks is to speak in the recognition that he is a personal representative of God. The one who performs a ministry of kindness is to do it without any conceit in personal powers or abilities so that God may be glorified. God is to be praised in that the service of human beings is seen as the overflowing of God’s goodness and kindness (See Kelly – Major Works Commentary, p. 181). The presence of a doxology in 4:11 need not indicate an intended conclusion of the book. Doxologies frequently appear in Scripture as an expression of the author’s awe and devotion after some statement or outburst concerning the majesty of God or Christ (See Kelly – Major Works Commentary, p. 182). (6)

Assurance for faithful servants:

Divine recognition for leaders serving unselfishly (5:1-4).

Divine encouragement for all Christians enduring in humility (5:5-9).

Chapter 5 includes advice for elders and young men of the church.

In 5:10 Peter assures those suffering that it will only be for “a little while”.

When we are suffering, we often feel as though our pain will never end. Peter gave these faithful Christians a broader perspective. In comparison with eternity, their suffering would last only “a little while.” Some of Peter’s readers would be strengthened and delivered in their own lifetimes. Others would be released from their suffering tough death. All of God’s faithful followers are assured of an eternal life with Christ, where there will be no suffering (Revelation 21:4). (Life Application Study Bible) (7)

Conclusion (5:10-14). Praises to God and greetings to the church.

I will leave you with the final words of the 1 Epistle of Peter, Peace be with all of you who are in Christ. (NLT)

Postscript: This song The Coloring Song by Petra is from my teenage years. My older brother Bob shared the music of the band Petra with me. It is not necessarily linked to 1 Peter, although the message of Jesus is found in both. But after in-depth research, I like to return my focus to our Savior Jesus in my life and in my heart and return to feeling versus thinking.

(Reference list is below words to the song).

The Coloring Song by Petra

The Coloring Song
Petra

Red is the color of the blood that flowed
Down the face of someone who loved us so
He’s the perfect man, He’s the Lord’s own Son
He’s the Lamb of God, He’s the only one
That can give us life, that can make us grow
That can make the love between us flow

Blue is the color of a heart so cold
That will not bend when the story’s told
Of the love of God for a sinful race
Of the blood that flowed down Jesus’ face
That can give us life, that can make us grow
That can keep our hearts from growing cold

Gold is the color of the morning sun
That shines so freely on everyone
It’s the sun above that keeps us warm
It’s the Son of Love that calms the storm
That can give us life, that can make us grow
That can turn our mornings into gold

Brown is the color of the autumn leaves
When the winter comes to the barren trees
There is birth, there is death, there is a plan
And there’s just one God and there’s just one man
That can give us life, that can make us grow
That can make our sins as white as snow

That can give us life, that can make us grow
That can turn our mornings into gold
That can give us life, that can make us grow
That can keep our hearts from growing cold
That can give us life, that can make us grow
That can make the love between us flow

Songwriters: David John Eden

References:|

☆ Required for the course was the use of Aymer and our choice of a study Bible. Bible verses were taken from the Life Application Study Bible (7) and are from the New Living Translation, as well as New International Version, New Revised Standard Version and one verse I used The Amplified Bible:

The Bible. Today’s New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005.

The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version. 1989. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

The Holy Bible: The Amplified Bible. 1987. 2015. La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation.

Aymer, Margaret (Ed.), Briggs Kittredge, Cynthia (Ed.), Sanchez, David A. (Ed.), (2014) Fortress Commentary on the Bible: The New Testament. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.

  1. Deaton, Steven. Pilgrims of the Dispersion – Conservative Bible Study | ImplantedWord.com Accessed 30 Mar 2021.
  2. Wuest, Kenneth S. Word Studies from the Greek New Testament, 1980, Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  3. Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon: Coded with Strong’s Concordance, 1995, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers.
  4. Tenney, Merrill C. (Editor). The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible on CD ROM [CD ROM]. (2007). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
  5. The First Epistle of Peter. Sermon Outlines. Executable Outlines [Website], Mark A. Copeland, 2006. Accessed 30 Mar 2021.
  6. Lea, Tommy. 1 PETER – OUTLINE AND EXPOSITION TOMMY LEA . SOUTHWESTERN JOURNAL OF THEOLOGY VOL. 25 – FALL 1982. Accessed 31 Mar 2021.
  7. Life Application Study Bible, New Living Translation, 2014, Wheaton, Il: Tyndale House Publishers
  8. The Turn Toward Hope – Verse Commentary on Isaiah 40. The Voice – Biblical and Theological Resources for Growing Christians [Website], Dennis Bratcher – CRI/Voice, 2018. Accessed 31 Mar 2021.
  9. Mowczko, Marg (BTh). “Submission and Respect from Wives – 1 Peter 3:1-6” [Web blog post]. Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism. margmowczko.com, 24 Apr 2012. Web. Accessed 27 Mar 2021
  10. Karen H. Jobes, 1 Peter (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament; Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2005), 205.
  11. Pullella, Philip. “Catholic Church buries limbo after centuries.  REUTERS. Accessed March 31, 2021.
  12. Drummond, John. “The Nephilim and the Sons of God – Unlike Hercules, Achilles, and Peseus, demigods were seen more negatively by ancient Israelites.” Web blog post. Bible History Daily. BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY SOCIETY, 3 Feb 2021. Accessed 28 Mar 2021.
  13. Lawrence, Natan. “Giants, Demon, Nephilim and the Book of Enoch.” Web blog post. Hoshanna Rabbah Blog – Midrash with Natan Lawrence. hoshanarabbah.org, 29 Oct 2016. Accessed 31 Mar 2021
  14. Dolphin, Lambert, “Notes on the Nephilim: The Giants of Old.” Website. ldolphin.org. Accessed 31 Mar 2021
  15. White, Ellen. “Who Are the Nephilim? The mysterious beings of Genesis 6.” Web blog post. Bible History Daily. BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY SOCIETY, 14 Mar 2021. Accessed 28 Mar 2021
  16. Editor in Chief of ConnectUS. 1 Peter 4:8 Meaning of Love Covers a Multitude of Sins. [Website] connectusfund.org. Accessed 31 Mar 2021.

☆ This blog entry is from my work in my Intro. to the New Testament course I took at Phillips Seminary. ☆

If you use any information from my blog posts as a reference or source, please give credit and provide a link back to my work that you are referencing. Unless otherwise noted, my work is © Anna A. Kasper 2011-2022. All rights reserved. Thank you.

About Anna Kasper, ACDP

I am an avid Genealogist. I am currently a student at Phillips Theological Seminary (one of the few Catholics!). I am an ACDP - Associate of the Congregation of Divine Providence (Sisters of Divine Providence of Texas). If you are unfamiliar with what a Religious Associate (also called an Affiliate, Consociate, Oblate, Companion) is exactly, visit my about me page for more information. In community college, I majored in American Sign Language/Deaf Studies, and Interdisciplinary Studies when at university.
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